wood engravings as
opposed to a woodcuts,
end grain box wood, 1.9
inches square
The third edition FREE in PDF format is here
180+ pages
ISBN:  978-0-9960026-6-0
Library of Congress Control Number:  2016900009
March  2019
Free extra notes and details in a supplement
multi block for color prints
rotated lino block one of a series, true
black line
white ink on black paper linocut
simulated black line
My book on lino cuts, wood cuts (bass, poplar,
birch, and pine), and wood engravings (box,
Plexiglass, Resingrave) for block prints,
discusses how to do certain things and how to
fix many screwups, plus many unique hints.
Many examples are shown in this third edition of
the book, which is extremely well illustrated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
INTRODUCING THE PROCESS
A FIRST SIMPLE USEFUL PROJECT
FAMOUS ARTISTS

2. LINO CUTS
AN OVERVIEW
A SECOND AND THIRD COMPLETE LINO PROJECT
DESIGN THOUGHTS
LINES: TEXTURED OR SOLID LINES
BACKGROUND TEXTURING
SILHOUETTES
DRAWING, AND CLOUDS, SUN, AND MOON
BORDERS
LETTERS
A MISTAKE OR A FUN IMAGE (HALOS)
DESIGNS CAN BE TOO BUSY
OFFSETS
MULTI COLOR PRINTS: BLOCKS AND STENCILS
FROM A PHOTO TO A BLOCK TO A PRINTED IMAGE
JAPANESE METHODS (PRINTING, REGISTERING)
LINES: WHITE LINES, BLACK LINES
SIMULATED VS REAL BLACK LINES
PROBLEM SOLVING

3. WOOD CUTS PINE AND THE KNIFE AS A PRIMARY TOOL
BIRCH PLYWOOD WITH V TOOLS, ETC
BASS AND POPLAR PLANK WOOD WITH V TOOLS, ETC
PROBLEM SOLVING

4. WOOD ENGRAVING
BOXWOOD, PLEXIGLASS, RESINGRAVE

5. TOOLS  
PRINTING AIDS
LINO AND WOOD CUT TOOLS AND KNIVES
WOOD ENGRAVING TOOLS
SHARPENING AIDS
CARE AND FEEDING OF TOOLS
MORE ON THE “V” TOOL
PROPERLY USING STONES AND STROPS
ENGRAVING TOOLS
SAFETY AND NOTES

6. MATERIALS
LINOLEUM (LINO) AND WOOD
INK, WATER AND OIL BASED, EASY CLEANUP
PAPER

7. APPENDICES

RESOURCES AND OTHER USEFUL OR FUN STUFF
8. GALLERY, GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ERRATA, AND INDEX
INDEX

A
Archival quality, 5, 80, 88, 98, 131, 134, 139,
157, 159, 170, 171, 174
Arkansas wet stone, 181

B
Baren, 5, 6, 8, 15, 18, 20, 56, 64, 77, 79, 80, 110,
181
Bass, 30, 94, 97, 130
Bench hook, 8, 56, 93, 102, 110, 131, 181
Bewick, 10
Birch, 84, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 140, 146, 147, 154,
157, 158, 172, 173, 174, 175
Bird, 4, 25, 30, 41, 44, 90, 94, 102, 142, 146,
148, 150, 156, 177, 178, 180
Black line, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 19, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30,
38, 39, 48, 62, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 78,
84, 86, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, 98, 107, 112, 125,
132, 137, 147, 155, 159, 176, 177, 178, 179,
180, 181
Blake, 11
Blemish, 40, 74
Bondo, 19, 20, 22, 77, 78, 79, 80, 96
Border, 3, 4, 7, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 30, 37,
40, 47, 56, 57, 59, 61, 67, 68, 69, 71, 78, 79,
80, 86, 90, 91, 96, 97, 102, 106, 139, 148, 157,
158, 159, 161, 169
Box, 6, 61, 85, 93, 101, 103, 105, 121, 146, 153
Brayer, 5, 6, 8, 15, 18, 64, 95, 110, 131, 181
Busy, 41, 44, 45, 68, 80

C
Cleaning, 5, 8, 9, 18, 19, 20, 23, 58, 61, 62, 67,
73, 74, 76, 79, 80, 82, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97,
98, 101, 104, 105, 107, 110, 121, 125, 128,
129, 130, 131, 132, 140, 143, 153, 172, 173
Cloud, 5, 17, 19, 21, 24, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 41,
42, 44, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 64, 67, 94, 96, 97,
105, 141, 152, 160, 167, 168, 169
Color, 5, 14, 25, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54,
55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70,
71, 74, 91, 132, 133, 134, 136, 139, 144, 146,
147, 149, 150, 155, 160, 167, 176

D
Damage, 7, 13, 38, 61, 62, 79, 80, 82, 83, 95, 98,
107, 110, 115, 121, 124, 125, 128, 131
Dog, 4, 27, 30, 31, 42, 90, 101, 102, 146, 150,
153, 154, 156, 157, 174
Durer, 10

E
Edition, 3, 5, 9, 20, 23, 46, 74, 75, 98, 107, 146,
151, 159
Extender, 59, 132, 181

F
Frisket, 70, 71

G
Gap, 98, 115, 117, 119, 121, 181
Gouge, 6, 9, 13, 14, 15, 17, 31, 38, 43, 47, 49,
56, 81, 83, 85, 86, 88, 91, 92, 100, 111, 112,
114, 125, 140, 152, 159, 173
Grit, 20, 77, 78, 79, 87, 95, 96, 101, 102, 103,
105, 106, 116, 120, 121, 123, 124

H
Heel, 115, 181
Hook, 100, 110, 119, 181
Humidity, 32, 80, 98, 105, 107, 130, 131

K
Keel, 98, 115, 117, 119, 123, 181
Kento, 65
Key Block, 10, 12, 14, 42, 46, 49, 50, 52, 54, 55,
57, 58, 59, 63, 64, 65, 84, 85, 137
Kipling, 12
Knife, 7, 9, 14, 40, 47, 57, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86,
87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 96, 98, 100, 105, 111, 112,
117, 118, 125, 156, 159, 173, 181

L
Letter, 7, 38, 39, 43, 70, 71, 79, 158
Linseed, 14, 82, 85, 86, 94, 95, 128, 132

M
Matting, 139
MDF, 6, 9, 14, 19, 62, 79, 104, 105, 107, 128,
153, 181

N
Negative Image, 5, 14, 60, 88, 125, 131, 181

O
Offset, 14, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 53, 55, 65, 72,
91, 101, 142, 144, 146, 155, 159, 163, 181
Oil, 6, 9, 14, 40, 58, 62, 82, 85, 86, 89, 90, 92,
94, 95, 98, 101, 106, 107, 113, 114, 115, 124,
125, 128, 130, 131, 132, 134, 145, 156, 172,
181
Opaque/Transparent, 55, 57, 58, 59, 132, 133

P
Paper, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 26, 27, 28,
29, 31, 33, 37, 40, 42, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51,
55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68,
69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 77, 79, 80, 86, 88, 91, 93,
95, 97, 98, 101, 106, 107, 110, 127, 128, 131,
132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 145,
151, 152, 154, 157, 159, 160, 161, 163, 164,
165, 169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 181
Picasso, 9, 11
Pine, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 93, 97,
98, 100, 146, 148, 156, 157, 159
Ply, 23, 93, 96, 98, 125, 130, 140, 146, 147, 156,
174, 175
Poplar, 97
Positive Image, 5, 60, 88, 125, 131, 156, 181
Printing Press, 6, 8, 18, 61, 77, 79, 85, 95, 110,
125, 157, 174
Proof, 5, 9, 18, 87, 139

R
Register, 14, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 64, 65,
68, 69, 70, 181
Re-inking, 48, 58, 72, 74, 80, 133
Resingrave, 61, 62, 99, 104, 105, 106, 107, 128,
137, 146, 147, 153, 172, 181
Retarder, 73, 75, 80, 92, 98, 107, 131, 132, 155,
181
Roller, 5, 6, 8, 9, 14, 15, 18, 19, 37, 46, 47, 48,
56, 58, 62, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 80, 90, 91, 95,
101, 110, 131, 159
Rose, 46, 86, 87, 89, 91, 101, 146, 147, 153, 156,
157, 159, 174, 175
Rust, 115

S
Safety, 2, 7, 15, 77, 79, 109, 113, 125, 136, 141,
143
Sand, 2, 20, 26, 28, 34, 77, 79, 95, 100, 107
Scorper, 104, 105, 106, 111, 181
Scratch, 77, 79, 80, 128
Ship, 35, 38, 77, 78, 82, 83, 106, 112, 140, 146,
147, 152, 169, 170, 171
Silhouette, 3, 11, 26, 27, 129, 146, 154
Sizing, 5, 74, 134, 181
Slip, 39, 80, 113, 116, 121, 181
Speedball, 6, 13, 14, 15, 17, 27, 38, 46, 47, 49,
56, 82, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 125, 128, 129,
130, 141, 142, 146, 154, 171
Spitsticker, 100, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 111,
181
Splinters, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 93, 96, 98, 103,
111, 112, 115, 117, 118, 125, 130
Stencil, 27, 53, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 64, 160
Stone, 2, 28, 104, 113, 114, 116, 120, 121, 122,
123, 124, 181
Strop, 5, 80, 82, 85, 86, 92, 113, 114, 116, 120,
121, 124, 125, 181
Sun, 4, 7, 9, 10, 21, 24, 32, 35, 36, 41, 44, 66,
76, 91, 92, 102, 136, 142, 150, 177, 178, 179,
180

T
Test, 4, 5, 9, 13, 14, 18, 31, 50, 74, 79, 85, 89,
97, 104, 107, 111, 114, 116, 128, 132, 133,
136, 155
Texture, 3, 4, 5, 11, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32, 34,
36, 43, 44, 63, 71, 74, 75, 86, 92, 97, 103, 112,
134, 139, 140, 145
Tint tool, 100, 102, 105, 106, 107, 111, 153, 181
Tools wood/linocut, 13, 49, 81, 82, 92, 93, 97,
112, 113, 115, 116, 125, 130, 137, 158, 172,
173
Transparent/Opaque, 129, 132
Tree, 16, 17, 19, 21, 41, 42, 43, 55, 59, 60, 63,
76, 90, 94, 106, 130, 136, 156, 158, 160, 161,
167, 168, 169, 171, 174

V
Viscosity, 73, 74, 132, 181

W
Water, 4, 6, 9, 18, 19, 23, 25, 26, 32, 40, 46, 47,
50, 51, 54, 58, 62, 63, 64, 69, 70, 73, 74, 75,
79, 80, 82, 86, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 97, 98, 101,
102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 113, 114, 120,
121, 124, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 136,
143, 144, 145, 147, 150, 153, 155, 156, 157,
158, 159, 160, 164, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173,
174, 177, 181
Whet Stone, 98, 104, 113, 114, 115, 116, 120,
121, 122, 123, 181
White line, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 14, 19, 23, 24, 26, 27,
30, 37, 38, 39, 42, 48, 49, 54, 67, 69, 70, 73,
75, 76, 78, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94,
96, 97, 98, 100, 107, 118, 125, 131, 132, 145,
148, 158, 160, 161, 167, 168, 169, 174, 175,
181
Wire edge, 104, 121, 122, 181

X
X-Acto, 40, 57, 81, 86, 87, 90, 92, 112, 125, 159
WOOD or RESINGRAVE ENGRAVINGS
INDEX OF SOME GALLERY PICTURES

LINO CUTS

A 2014 SEASONAL CARD, BIRD ON A POND ~ A linocut for a card
A 2015 SEASONAL CARD, CATERPILLAR ON VINE, (HORIZONTAL BG) ~ 4 x 5 inch
A 2015 SEASONAL CARD, CATERPILLAR ON VINE, (SLOPEDBG) ~ 4 x 5 inch
A 2016 SEASONAL CARD, BOUNTY (A seasonal greeting card) ~ A 4 by 6 inch lino cut.
BEAKY AND MIKO ~ A lino cut.
BREAKFAST FLOWERS ~ a three color linocut 5 by 7 inches, intentionally mottled.
BURRO AND A SNOWMAN ~ A 2017 SEASONAL CARD
CLOUDS AND WAVES ~ small lino sampler
ELEPHANTS RESTING ~ An 8 by 10 inch picture of elephants.
FALL DESERT ROSE ~ A lino cut mirror imaged from a ply wood cut.
FLUTTERBYS ~ A three color block linocut, 4 by 6 inches. Intentionally mottled.
IRIS BUNNY ~ A linocut of a rabbit, image transferred from a photo of a drawing
KUMIKO’S SHADOW ~ double silhouette on Speedball Speedy-Cut
LOOKING FOR TREASURE
LOVE THE OCEAN ~ small lino sampler
QUIET POND ~ a four color linocut with two colors printed on one block 4 by 6 inches
SMALL COASTAL SHIP ~ A 4 by 5 inch lino block.
SOMETHING FISHY HERE ~ small lino sampler
SPRING IN SOMERSET CHURCH, ST BEUNO ~ 8x10 inch, Edition 2 has “II” on a
gravestone, white on black
ST BEUNO CHURCH, SOMERSET ~ 8x10 inch, Edition 3 has an “III” on a gravestone,
black on white
SUNDIAL LINO CUT ~ A linocut
THE YOUNG LADY ~ A linocut of a lady whose image was transferred from a photo



WOOD CUTS

A KNOTTY ROSE ~ This was birch plywood, 4 x 4.5 inches
A PARROT ~ This is a 4 by 6 inch wood cut, on pine plank.
A ROSE AND CATERPILLAR ~ pine woodcut, 3.5 inches
A ROSE AND CATERPILLAR OFFSET ~ an offset of the “ROSE AND CATERPILLAR”
A WILD ROSE ~ This is a 4 by 6 inch wood cut, on pine plank.
BUTTERCUPS AND CHEESE ~ A 3 1/2 by 4 1/2 inch birch plank
MIKO’S DILEMMA ~ left over 6 inch wide pine plank, untreated
MILKING TIME AGAIN ~ This was birch plywood, 4 x 4.5 inches
SUNDIAL WOOD CUT ~ A woodcut on pine plank
THE DOG AND BIRD ~ A 3.5 by 5 inch woodcut on pine
REUNION ~ A 4.2 by 4 inch birch ply woodcut


WOOD ENGRAVINGS

DOG IN THE DESERT ~ Box wood. The image was 1.9 inches square.
FIDO ~ A box wood engraving. The dog engraving was 0.9 inches wide.
PARROT IN THE AMAZON ~ Box wood. The image was 1.9 inches square.
ROSALIE ~ A box wood engraving. The width of the rose flower was 0.9 inches.
A COWS HEAD ~ Resingrave engraving about 1.9 inches square


INDEX OF EXHIBIT GALLERY PICTURES

LINO CUTS IN A SPECIFIC SERIES

(NATURE)
NATURE ASCENDING ~ An 8 by 10 inch, b&w, and color also
NATURE’S CYCLE ~ An 8 by 10 inch picture of life and season cycles.
NATURE’S APPLES ~ A 9 by 12 inch lino cut. b&w, and w&b also

(MEDLEY)  
BIRTH OF A DRAGONFLY ~ An 8 by 10 inch linocut
THE POND AT WAYFORD WOODS ~ An 8 by 10 inch linocut

(WHIMSY)
ELEPHANTS NEVER FORGET ~ An 8 by 10 inch picture of elephants.
BEES AND HONEY ~ An 8 by 10 inch picture of bees borrowing honey

(SAILING)
PLYING THE COFFEE TRADE ~ 8 x10 inch sailing ship, b&w, w&b
SHACKLETON’S FAMED ENDURANCE  ~ 8x10 inch sailing ship
SAILING THE OCEANS    ~   An 8 by 10 inch sailing ship

(ELEMENTS)        The ancient elements
EARTH ~ a 7 by 7 inch, b&w and color, black line
AIR ~ a 7 by 7 inch, b&w and color, black line  
FIRE ~ a 7 by 7 inch, b&w, black line  
WATER ~ a 7 by 7 inch, b&w, black line  

The elements of the calendar year

SPRING ~7x7 inch, b&w, black line, Spring activities
SUMMER ~7x7 inch, b&w, black line, Summer joys
AUTUMN ~7x7 inch, b&w, black line, Autumn as leaves fall,
also called FALL


FLIGHT ~ the first version of “AIR”
LAZY SUMMER, or GENTLE SUMMER ~  first version of “SUMMER”

WOOD CUTS IN A SPECIFIC SERIES

(MEMORIES)
ANY BACON? ~ Miko: birch ply woodcut. 4 x 4.5 inch  
BEAKY WANTS A TREAT ~ Beaky: birch ply woodcut, 4 x 4.5 inch
FLAMING ROSE ~ birch ply wood cut; this was 4 x 4.5 inch
MILKING TIME ~ birch ply wood cut; this was 4 x 4.5 inch

BEAKY BUZZES MIKO ~ Birch ply woodcut. 4 x 4.2 inch
BABY BEAKS ~ Birch ply woodcut. 4 x 4.2 inch
DESERT ROSE ~ Birch ply woodcut. 4 x 4.2 inch
RUDOLPH AND THE IRIS ~ Birch ply woodcut. 4 x 4.2 inch, 2018 card


WOOD AND LINO CUTS IN A SPECIFIC SERIES

(HISTORICAL)
ST PAUL’S MISADVENTURE ~ An 8 by 10 inch linocut
ST PAUL’S SHIPWRECK ~ An 8 by 10 inch birch ply woodcut
ST PAUL’S ARRIVAL ~ An 8 by 5 inch Resingrave engraving
FEEDBACK VERY WELCOME AT:-
illustratingshadows@yahoo.com
PLEASE !     THANKYOU
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linocut
bunny rabbit 4x5 inch
linocut
(c) sws 2017
(c) sws 2017
(c) sws 2017
(c) sws 2017
(c) sws 2017
(c) sws 2017
This used rolled ink for the yellow
(first) and black (last) blocks. The blue,
green, and orange used diluted ink
brushed onto the blocks.
(c) sws 2017
(c) sws 2018
St Paul's shipwreck as an engraving on Resingrave
printed with oil based ink
(c) sws 2017
(c) sws 2018
St Paul's shipwreck, above is a
linocut white ink on black
birch plywood woodcut
St Paul's shipwreck, a woodcut printed with
water based black ink, birch plywood
(c) sws 2018
(c) sws 2019
(c) sws 2019
(c) sws 2017
3 blocks, several colors, registration by eye
Cranfield’s Caligo oil based inkwhich is dish
washing soap then water cleanup
(c) sws 2019
3 blocks, several colors, registration by eye
(c) sws 2018
A few examples of various block prints. A key feature of this book is the many mistakes and solutions that can happen.
LINOCUTS
WOODCUTS
Silver City, NM
USA